Key stages 
GCSE English & Maths
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Key Stages 1 and 2
National Curriculum
Key stages 1 and 2 are the six years that comprise primary school, covering the ages of 5 to 12 years old. Key stage 1 covers years 1 and 2 of primary education, and key stage two covers years 3, 4, 5 and 6. At the end of Key stage on and in the final year of primary education, students will take their Standard Assessment Tests (SATS) in order to assess their current abilities and many students will then undertake 11+ entrance exams in order to qualify for secondary education. Our goal is to assist children with every one of these steps during their education and therefore our curriculum is designed to adhere to the National Curriculum that schools follow.
The curriculum is as follows:
Maths: Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6
English: Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 & Year 4 Year 5 & Year 6
Maths
Key Stage 1
Year 1

Number and Place Value
 Counting to 100, forward and backward.
 Multiples of 2, 5 and 10.
 Identifying one more or one less.
 Pictorial representations and number lines.
 'Equal to', 'more than', 'less than', 'most', 'least', 'fewer'.
 Read and write 1 to 20 in words.
 Ordering.

Addition and Subtraction
 Add and subtract one and two digit numbers up to 20.
 Number bonds and subtraction facts up to 20.
 Missing number problems.
 Using zero.
 One step problems using objects and images.
 'Put together', 'add', 'altogether', 'total', 'take away', 'distance/ difference between', 'more than', 'less than'.

Multiplication and Division
 One step problems using objects and images.
 Arrays.
 Doubling/ halving.

Fractions
 Halves, dividing by two.
 Quarters, dividing by four.

Measurements
 Length and height.
 Mass/ weight.
 Capacity/ volume.
 Double/ half/ quarter measurements.
 Time.
 Money, recognising values.
 Chronological orders.
 Dates, days of the week, weeks, months, years.

Geometry
 Recognise and name rectangles, squares, circles, triangles, cuboids, pyramids and spheres.
 Position and direction.
 Turns on a clockface, clockwise, anti clockwise.
Year 2

Number and Place Value
 Counting in twos, threes and fives from zero.
 Counting in tens from any number.
 Tens and units.
 Compare and order numbers from 0 – 100.
 <, > and = signs.
 Odd and even numbers.

Addition and Subtraction
 Working with numbers up to 100.
 Working with two digit numbers.
 Adding/ subtracting in tens.
 Adding three one digit numbers together.
 Understanding that addition can be done in any order, subtraction can not.
 Inverse relationships.
 Missing number problems.

Multiplication and Division
 2, 5 and 10 times tables.
 Associating 5 times tables with analogue clocks.
 Understanding that mutiplication could be done in any order, division can not.
 Inverse relationships.
 Arrays, repeated addition, mental methods, context problems.
 Understanding link to fractions.

Fractions
 1/3, 1/4, 2/4, 3/4 of a length, shape, set of objects or quantity.
 Simple equations.
 Equivalent fractions.
 Counting up to ten with fractions.

Measurement
 Length, height, mass, temperature, capacity, volume.
 Comparing and ordering.
 £ and p; combining amounts.
 Time intervals.
 Telling time to 5 minutes.
 Minutes in an hour, hours in a day.
 'Half as high', 'twice as wide'.

Geometry
 Describing 2D and 3D shapes.
 Identify 2D shapes on surface of 3D shapes.
 Comparing and sorting shapes.
 Quadrilaterals, polygons, cuboids, prisms, cones.
 Turning objects in 1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 turns.
 Right angles.

Statistics
 Pictograms, tally charts, block diagrams, simple tables.
 Counting and sorting objects in categories.
 Totalling and comparing categorical data.
Key Stage 2
Year 3

Number and Place Value
 Count from 0 in 4, 8, 50 and 100.
 Find 10 or 100 more or less.
 Hundreds, tens, ones/ units.
 Compare and order numbers up to 1000.
 Read and write numbers up to 1000 in numbers and words.

Addition and Subtraction
 Add and subtract mentally.
 Formal written methods.
 Inverse operations.
 Missing number problems.

Multiplication and Division
 3, 4 and 8 times tables.
 2 digit numbers multiplied by one digit numbers.
 Missing number problems.
 Connecting 2, 4 and 8 times tables.
 Inverse operations.
 Using efficient methods for complex equations.
 Context problems.

Fractions
 Tenths.
 Equivalent fractions.
 Adding and subtracting fractions.
 Comparing and ordering fractions.

Measurements
 Measure, compare, add and subtract length, mass, volume, capacity.
 Measure perimiters of simple shapes.
 Add and subtract money to give change.
 Tell and write time from analogue clocks.
 12 and 24 hour time.
 Roman numerals I to XII.
 Time equations.
 Seconds in a minute, days in each month, year and leap year.
 Duration of events.

Geometry
 Draw 2D and 3D shapes.
 Right Angles.
 Horizontal, vertical, perpendicular, parallel.

Statistics
 Bar charts, pictograms, tables.
 One step and two step questions.
 Scaling.
Year 4

Number and Place Value
 Multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000.
 1000 more or less.
 Negative numbers.
 Thousands, hundreds, tens, ones (units).
 Order and compare numbers over 1000.
 Rounding numbers.
 Roman numerals to 100.

Addition and Subtraction
 Add and subtract numbers up to 4 digits.
 Inverse operations.
 Two step problems with context.

Multiplication and Division
 Times tables up to 12.
 Multiplying three numbers together.
 Factor pairs.
 Multiply two digit and three digit numbers by a one digit number.
 Mental methods.

Fractions
 Common equivalent fractions.
 Hundredths.
 Add and subtract fractions.
 Decimal equivalents.
 Rounding decimals.
 Comparing decimal numbers.
 Measurement and money problems involving fractions and decimals.

Measurement
 Conversion
 Perimiters in cm and m.
 Area.
 Converting between analogue and digital times.
 Converting hours to minutes, minutes to seconds, years to months, weeks to days.

Geometry
 Comparing and classifying shapes.
Acute and obtuse angles.
 Lines of symmetry.
 Coordinates and translation.
 Plot shapes on a graph.

Statistics
 Discrete and continuous data.
 Bar charts, time graphs.
 Compare, sum and difference.
Year 5

Number and Place Value
 Read, write, order, and compare numbers to 1,000,000.
 Millions, hundred thousands, ten thousands, thousands, hundreds, tens, ones (units).
 Count forwards and backwards in steps of powers of 10.
 Negative numbers.
 Rounding.
 Roman numerals to 1000.

Addition and Subtraction
 Add and subtract 4 digit numbers.
 Use rounding to check and estimate numbers.
 Multi step problems.

Multiplication and Division
 Multiples and factors.
 Prime numbers, prime factors, composite numbers.
 Multiply 4 digits by one or two digit numbers.
 Long multiplication.
 Divide 4 digit numbers by one digit numbers using short division.
 Multiply and divide by 10, 100 and 1000.
 Squaring, cubing, square numbers, cube numbers.
 Scaling with fractions.
 Simple rate plroblems.

Fractions
 Denominators with common multiples.
 Equivalent fractions.
 Mixed numbers and improper fractions.
 Multiplying fractions and mixed numbers by whole numbers.
 Decimal numbers as fractions.
 Thousandths, hundredths, tenths.
 Decimal equivalents.
 Rounding decimals.
 Read, write, order and compare decimal numbers.
 Percentages.

Measurement
 Conversion.
 Inches, pounds, pints.
 Perimeters in cm and m.
 Area.
 Volume and capacity.
 Converting between units of time.

Geometry
 Identify 3D shapes.
 Angles.
 Turning shapes.
 Missing lengths and angles.
 Regular and irregular polygons.
 Reflection and translation.

Statistics
 Line graphs.
 Tables.
Year 6

Number and Place Value
 Read, write, order and compare numbers up to 10,000,000.
 Place values up to 10,000,000.
 Rounding.
 Negative numbers.

Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division
 Multiply 4 digit numbers by two digit numbers.
 Divide 4 digit numbers by two digit numbers.
 Long multiplication and division.
 Common factors and multiples.
 Prime numbers.
 BODMAS.
 Multi step problems.

Fractions
 Simplifying.
 Common factors.
 Common multiples in denominators.
 Compare and order fractions exceeding 1.
 Multiply fractions.
 Divide fractions by whole numbers.
 Decimal equivalents.
 Thousandths, hundredths, tenths.
 Multiplying decimals with whole numbers.
 Dividing with decimals.
 Rounding,

Ration and Proportion
 Relative sizes.
 Percentages of amounts.
 Scale factors.
 Unequal sharing and grouping.

Algebra
 Simple formulae.
 Linear number sequences.
 Missing number problems.
 Equations with two unknowns.

Measurement
 Calculation and conversion of units.
 Decimals.
 Miles and kilometres.
 Different shapes with same area.
 Area and volume formulae.

Geometry
 Draw 2D shapes using given dimensions and angles.
 3D shape nets.
 Compare and classify shapes.
 Find unknown angles.
 Radius, diameter, circumference.
 Coordinates.
 Draw and translate shapes.
 Reflection.

Statistics
 Pie charts, line graphs.
 Calculate mean as an average.
English
Key Stage 1
Year 1

Reading: Word Reading
 Phonic knowledge and skills.
 Grapheme sounds; all 44 phonemes and alternative sounds.
 Grapheme Phoneme Correspondence.
 Blending sounds in new words containing GPCs.
 Common exceptions.
 's', 'es', 'ing', 'ed', 'er', 'est'.
 Multiple syllable words.
 Contractions.
 Reading aloud.
 Fluency and confidence.

Reading: Comprehension
 Listening to and discussing texts above reading level.
 Link to own experiences.
 Predictable phrases.
 Rhymes and poems.
 Discussing meanings.
 Using prior knowledge.
 Inferring.
 Significance of titles and events.
 Predicting.
 Group discussions, taking turns.
 Explaning personal understanding.

Writing: Transcription
Spelling
 Phonemes.
 Common exceptions.
 Days of the week.
 Alphabet in order.
 Prefixes and suffixes.
 Spelling rules.
 Writing down dictated sentences.
Handwriting
 Posture, holding a pencil/ pen.
 Lower and upper case/ capital letters.
 Numbers 0 – 9.

Writing: Composition
 Saying ideas and discussing topics out loud.
 Saying sentences out loud before writing.
 Forming short narratives.
 Checking work.
 Discussing written work.
 Reading work aloud.

Writing: Vocabulary, Grammar, Punctuation
 Spaces.
 Using 'and'.
 Capital letters, full stops, question marks, exclamation marks.
Year 2

Reading: Word Reading
 Phonic knowledge.
 Reading fluency, speed and accuracy.
 Blending sounds in words containing known graphemes and alternative sounds.
 Multiple syllables.
 Common suffixes.
 Common exceptions.
 Reading aloud with accuracy.

Reading: Comprehension
 Contemporary and classic poetry, stories, and non fiction above current ability.
 Sequences of events and how items of information are related.
 Non fiction with different structures.
 Literary language.
 Discussing and clarifying meanings.
 Favourite words and phrases.
 Using prior knowledge and background information.
 Checking understanding and correcting mistakes.
 Inferring and predicting.
 Discussing texts, listening and taking turns.
 Discussing and explaining understanding of texts.

Writing: Transcription
Spelling
 Segmenting spoken words into phonemes and representing these by graphemes.
 Learning new ways to spell phonemes.
 Homophones and near homophones.
 Common exceptions.
 Contractions.
 Possessive apostrophe, singular.
 Suffixes.
 Writing sentences from memory.
Handwriting
 Lower and upper case letters, digits, and correct sizing.
 Joining letters.
 Spacing.

Writing: Composition
 Personal experiences.
 Real events.
 Poetry.
 Different purposes.
 Planning, writing down ideas.
 Correcting work, proofreading.
 Reading written work aloud.

Writing: Vocabulary, Grammar, Punctuation
 Full stops, capital letters, exclamation marks, question marks, commas for lists, and apostrophes for contractions and singular possessive.
 Statements, questions, exclamations and commands.
 Noun phrases.
 Present and past tenses.
 Subordination and coordination.
 Features of written Standard English.
 Discussing grammatical terminology.
Key Stage 2
Year 3 and 4

Reading
 Root words, prefixes and suffixes (etymology and morphology).
 Exception words.

Reading Comprehension
 Fiction, non fiction, poetry, plays, reference books and text books.
 Different structures and purposes.
 Dictionary checking.
 Themes and conventions.
 Understanding intonation, tone, volume and action.
 Words and phrases that capture interest and imagination.
 Forms of poetry.
 Discussing understanding and words in context.
 Asking questions to improve understanding.
 Inferring and using evidence.
 Predictions from details stated and implied.
 Main ideas and summarising.
 Identifying how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning.
 Retrieve and record information.
 Discussing texts, listening and taking turns.

Writing: Transcription
Spellings
 Prefixes and suffixes.
 Homophones.
 Commonly mispelt words.
 Possessive apostrophe, plural.
 Checking spelling with a dictionary.
 Writing from memory.
Handwriting
 Joining letters.
 Increasing legibility, consistency and quality.

Writing: Composition
 Learning structures, vocabulary and grammar from texts.
 Discussing and recording ideas.
 Composing and rehearsing sentences.
 Building a varied and rich vocabulary and increasing range of sentence structures.
 Organising paragraphs around a theme,
 Creating settings, characters and plots.
 Using simple organisational devices.
 Assessing effectiveness of writing.
 Proof reading.

Writing: Vocabulary, Grammar, Punctuation
 Conjunctions.
 Fronted adverbials.
 Present perfect verbs.
 Nouns and pronouns.
 Time and cause.
 Direct and indirect speech.
Year 5 and 6

Reading Words
 Root words, prefixes and suffixes (etymology and morphology).
 Reading aloud accurately and understanding new words.

Reading: Comprehension
 Fiction, poetry, plays, non fiction, reference books and textbooks.
 Different structures and purposes.
 Recommending texts and giving reasons.
 Themes and conventions.
 Making comparisons.
 Discussing understanding and exploring meaning of words in context.
 Inferring with evidence.
 Predictions from details stated and implied.
 Summarising main ideas and indentifying key details to support main ideas.
 Identifying how language, structure and presentation contribute to meaning.
 Use of language; figurative language.
 Impact of text on readers.
 Statements of fact and opinion.
 Retrieve, record and present information.
 Discussing ideas, building on own ideas as well as others'. Challenging views courteously.
 Explaining and discussing understanding of what is read.
 Providing reasoned justifications for views.

Writing: Transcription
Spelling
 Prefixes and suffixes.
 Silent letters.
 Homophones and common misconceptions.
 Morphology and etymology.
 Using a dictionary and thesaurus.
Handwriting
 Increasing legibility, fluency and speed.
 Using appropriate writing implement.

Writing: Composition
 Identify target audience and purpose of text.
 Noting and developing initial ideas.
 Developing characters and settings.
 Appropriate grammar and vocabulary.
 Describing settings, characters and atmosphere.
 Integrating dialogue to convey character and advance story.
 Precising longer passages.
 Building cohesion.
Using organisational and presentational devices to structure text and guide readers.
 Assessing effectiveness of writing.
 Evaluating and proof reading.
 Correct use of tenses.

Writing: Vocabulary, Grammar, Punctuation
 Formal speech and writing.
 Passive verbs.
 Perfect verb form.
 Noun phrases.
 Modal verbs and adverbs indicating possibility.
 Relative clauses with implied relative pronouns.
 Commas to clarify meaning or avoid ambiguity.
 Hyphens to avoid ambiguity.
 Parenthesis.
 Semi – colons, colons or dashes marking boundaries between independent clauses.
 Using a colon to introduce a list.
 Bullet points.
GCSE
What are GCSEs
GCSEs (General Certificate of Secondary Education) are subjectbased academic qualifications. Students study towards GCSEs at secondary school in England and Wales over a period of two years, usually in Year 10 and 11.
How will GCSEs affect my future studies?
1. They can determine the sixth form you go to.
2. They determine the qualifications you take next.
3. They could be used to assess eligibility for a uni course.
4. They may limit the universities you can apply to.
5. They can affect the career you end up doing.
UK English Tutors will support your child in English & Maths from Key Stage 1, right through to Key Stage 4 making sure they are on track with the targets set by the National Curriculum, and help them through their assessments and any difficulties at each stage.